Continuous urbanization and immigration have demanded to build of tall buildings which are functional as well as safe to accommodate our overpopulation of the world. Skyscrapers are the solution to our modern world issues. The tallest buildings in the world are another miracle of our technological advancement. The world being a global village now is becoming crowded with high-rise buildings that provide its residents with convenience and safety. They also give spectacular aerial views as well.
The Fundamentals of Design
Most skyscrapers have steel frame building and, use large glass for windows and curtain walls. The less surface area and stretching height are part of their structures.
The Tubular Structure
Most high-rise buildings opt for the tubular system as its hollow structural section can efficiently withstand wind and its weight. They also absorb more daylight which can meet its energy requirements in terms of renewable energy for central heating and cooling of the building.
These skyscrapers are free-standing buildings touching new heights due to the introduction of mass dampers. They are shock absorbers as well to minimize the vibrations and wind pressure, which is of great significance for mega-tall skyscrapers. They are necessary in times of earthquakes or any natural disaster.
Sky Lobbies and Elevators
Modern high-rise buildings are built around elevators. As the height of the building is increased the need for elevators to commute also increases. The concept of sky lobbies was introduced to change from the local elevators to express elevators which take people to upper floors. Elevators are a must characteristic for the accessibility of all floors in all tall buildings.
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Inventory of World’s Tallest Buildings
Nowadays we commonly observe skyscrapers all around the world and the following are some of the details of the tallest buildings in the world.
Burj Khalifa of Dubai
The tallest standing building on the face of Earth was designed by Adrian Smith of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill firm and its structural engineer was Bill Baker. Neo-futurism is the style of its architecture. Its construction began in 2003 and it was completed in 2009. However, its inauguration took place in 2010. The building has an elevation of 829.8 meters and the height of its roof is 828 m without including the antenna. It has 163 floors above the ground and 1 below the ground with 57 elevators and 8 escalators. The Burj Khalifa offers hotels, restaurants, and corporate as well as residential suites. On top of that, it also has observation decks for tourists. Lastly, the Dubai fountain is quite an attraction as well, which is also the world’s largest choreographed fountain.
Shanghai Tower, China
The mega-tall tower is in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai. It is China’s tallest building. The architectural structure was designed by Marshall Strabala and Jun Xia whereas its engineers were from Thornton Tomasetti and Cosentini Associates. Moreover, its construction started in 2008 and was completed in 2014. But it was opened on 2 February 2015. The height of this skyscraper is 632m. It has 128 floors above the ground and 5 floors below the ground. The tower’s elevator system was supplied by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation. It supplied 149 fast-speed elevators to the tower. Shanghai tower provides various hotels, restaurants, fitness centers, swimming pools, concert halls, exhibition halls, and viewing platforms for sightseeing as well.
Royal Clock Tower, Saudi Arabia
The sixth tallest freestanding structure in the world is located in the heart of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. Its architectural style is a postmodern new classical style. The construction of this skyscraper began in 2004 and it was completed in 2012. Architecture and structure were designed by SL Rasch GmbH and Dar Al-Handasah. The building has an elevation of 601 meters, and it has a four-faced clock on the top of its tower. The clock tower has 120 floors with 96 elevators. It has a five-star hotel to accommodate the pilgrims, a five-story shopping mall, and a parking lot that can hold thousands of vehicles.
Lotte World Tower, South Korea
This skyscraper is based in Seoul of South Korea. The tower has a height of 555.7 meters with 123 floors above the ground and 6 floors below the ground. Its construction started in 2010 and it finished in 2016. An American Architecture Firm Kohn Pedersen Fox designed its building whereas its structural engineers were Leslie E. Robertson Associates. It also has an observation deck through a terrace and Seoul Sky Café. There are hotels, lounge bars, apartments, and offices with prominent views of the city in this tower.
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One World Trade Center, United States
The formerly known as Freedom Tower is situated in Lower Manhattan, New York City. It is the tallest building in the US, designed by David Childs of Skidmore, Owings& Merrill and its structural engineers were from WSP Global Inc. It is inspired by Contemporary modern architectural style. The supertall building’s construction began in 2006 and it was opened to people in 2014. The total height of this high-rise building is 541 meters. It occupies 94 floors above the ground floor and 5 below the ground with 73 elevators. The Center mainly comprises offices, but the observation deck holds 3 floors for the visitors and tenants.
Taipei 101, Taiwan
Taipei 101was the former world’s tallest building before Burj Khalifa. Its architectural style is postmodernist. The Taiwanese architects C.Y. Lee and C.P. Wang designed its building and Thornton Tomasetti is the firm that provided its structural engineers. Its construction was initiated in 1999 and ended in 2004. The tower has a height of 508.2m, with 101 floors above the ground and 5 below the ground. The building has 61 record-breaking high-speed elevators. It offers one indoor observatory and two outdoor observation decks. Mostly offices, shopping malls, Taiwanese stock exchange, banks, and sky lobbies are accommodated in the tower. Many prominent events take place at the tower like art exhibitions and fireworks at midnight every New Year’s Eve.
Lakhta Center, Russia
Europe’s tallest building is situated in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The tower has earned a platinum certification from the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The tower is 462 meters tall with 87 floors above the ground and 3 below the ground with a neo-futuristic style. Architectural firm RMJM was responsible for its design and its structural engineers were from Gorproject and Inforceproject. The construction of the center started in 2012 and finished after 8 years in 2019. It also offers an observation deck free for the public. The building accommodates offices, a conference center, a co-working space, and exhibition galleries as well.
Landmark 81, Vietnam
The skyscraper is based in the Ho Chi Minh City of Vietnam. It is the second tallest building in Southeast Asia with a height of 461.2 meters. The construction of the building was started in 2015 and it was inaugurated in 2018. Its architectural designer and structural engineering firms were Atkins and ARUP respectively. The building has 81 floors above the ground and 3 floors below the ground with 29 elevators to commute through it. It consists of hotels, restaurants, apartments, and observation decks as well with high-end facilities.
Petronas Towers, Malaysia
The supertall twin towers are in Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. They were inspired by Post-modern Islamic architecture. The feature of the sky bridge makes these towers more attractive as many tourists visit them. The world’s tallest twin towers have a height of 451.9 meters which comprises 88 floors above and 5 floors below the ground with 38 elevators in each tower. Their construction started in 1992 and ended in 1998. Cesar Pelli was its architect whereas engineers were provided by the firm of Thornton Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu. The towers are a popular tourist attraction with shopping malls, observation decks, and a sky bridge as well. They also serve the purpose of commercial offices.
Al Hamra Tower, Kuwait
The landmark is present in Kuwait City, and it is the world’s tallest curved concrete tower. It was sculpted by architect Gary Paul Haney and its structural engineers were from Skidmore Owings& Merrill firm. Construction of the tower began in 2005 and it was inaugurated in 2011. The concrete tower is 414m tall with 80 floors above the ground and 3 floors below the ground and it also has 43 elevators. The building is occupied by several offices and shopping malls as well.
Skyscrapers are the future of our infrastructure. These tall buildings standing on their own defying all the laws of gravity are a marvel in themselves. They provide us with all the necessities under one roof. The high-rise buildings occupy less space and in return accommodate numerous facilities. Moreover, landmarks are surely fascinating especially Burj Khalifa as it holds many world records.